End-stage renal disease is the end stage of chronic kidney disease. This means the kidneys no longer function well enough to remove excess fluids and waste materials from the body. The glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and symptoms or complications are used to determine the stage of ESRD. These are the stages of chronic kidney disease and ESRD.
Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal or high GFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2). This stage may show signs of kidney disease, including protein in the urine. However, the kidneys still function well enough to remove waste products.
Stage 2: Kidney damage and mild decreases in GFR (60-89 mg/min/1.73m2). Stage 2: Mild to moderate decline in kidney function. The kidneys still have the ability to filter harmful substances.
Stage 3: A moderate decrease in GFR (30-59 mg/min/1.73m2). This stage is markedly deficient in kidney function and may cause fatigue, fluid retention, anemia, or other symptoms.
Stage 4: Severe decline in GFR (15-29 milliliters/min/1.73m2). This stage can cause fatigue, swelling, shortness or breath problems, as well as increased infection and anemia risk.
Stage 5: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) (<15 mL/min/1.73 m2 or dialysis). This stage is when the kidneys are completely dysfunctional and require replacement therapy, such as dialysis, or transplantation.
ESRD staging should take into account the underlying cause, comorbidities such as diabetes or hypertension, the age and genetic factors. ESRD is most commonly caused by hypertension and diabetes. But, other conditions like glomerulonephritis or polycystic kidney diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders, can cause ESRD. Diabetes and hypertension, along with other conditions, can cause kidney problems and lead to complications like neuropathy, cardiovascular disease and retinopathy. Alter can affect kidney disease progression. As older people age, their kidney function may be less than normal. ESRD may be caused by genetic factors, since some kidney diseases can also be hereditary.
The stages of ESRD, as well the factors which contribute to their development, progression, are complicated and will require a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, such as nephrologists, nurse practicians, and others. Early diagnosis and treatment of CKD, and the underlying causes of it can slow down the progression and decrease the likelihood of ESRD.