Pneumonia can be defined as a chronic respiratory disease that is caused by inflammation or infection of the lungs. Pneumonia is usually caused by bacterial infection. However, viral, fungal and parasitic infections can all be causes.
Pathophysiology is pneumonia caused by microorganisms like bacteria and viruses entering the lung tissue. Infecting the alveoli (the tiny sacs that allow gas exchange in the lungs) results in these microorganisms becoming a problem. This infection causes inflammation, which in turn triggers the immune system to send immune cells to attack the area.
The inflammation can cause the air sacs to fill with pus and fluid. This causes the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges to be impeded. The inflammation can result in difficulty breathing, chest pain and coughing.
If not addressed, pneumonia could cause serious complications, such as respiratory failure and sepsis. The treatment of pneumonia involves antibacterial and viral antibiotics, as well as supportive care for managing symptoms and maintaining adequate oxygenation.