List the four cardinal signs of inflammation. Describe what physiological processes bring about these signs. 

Help with nursing homework: Inflammation and infectious disease| Nursing homework help

There are four main signs that inflammation is present: redness, heat (swelling), pain, and swelling. Increased blood flow in the area affected can cause redness. This leads to an increase in temperature. The swelling is caused by fluid accumulation in tissue due to inflammatory cells producing histamine. Small blood vessels become more permeable, allowing fluid out. The chemical signals that are released from damaged or injured cells, activating sensory receptors within the nerve endings of the affected area, cause pain.

This is part of an intricate sequence called the inflammatory reaction. It’s designed to prevent injury and infection by inducing a local immune response. It helps prevent further injury and allows for healing through the provision of additional nutrients, oxygen, and other molecules that are necessary for repair or regeneration.

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