The eyes are our windows to the word. Different medical conditions can cause changes to the eyes. In this discussion I will write about Cataracts, Glaucoma, Diabetes Mellitus, and Chronic Hypertension.

Response to discussion 2 | Nursing homework help

Cataracts can cause vision loss by clouding the lens. Age, smoking, UV light exposure, diabetes mellitus and steroids are all risk factors. Eye exams can identify cataracts using visual acuity testing or an ophthalmoscopic exam. There are two options: corrective lenses, surgery or removing the cloudy lens to replace it.

Glaucoma can cause blindness by affecting peripheral vision. Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease that causes increased intraocular pressure. This can be caused either by excessive fluid production or poor drainage. To screen for glaucoma, you will need to measure your intraocular pressure with tonometry. You also have to examine the optic nerve head using specialized imaging tools such as OCT (optical coherence tomography). The treatment options available to patients with glaucoma include eyedrops, oral medication to lower IOP and laser therapy to decrease fluid production and stimulate drainage.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder, causes high blood sugar levels and impaired insulin action in cells. The result is a disruption of metabolism that can lead to vision problems such as diabetic retinopathy. DM screening should include yearly dilated fundus exams where signs of DR including bleeding/exudates in retina are noted as well treatments tailored according to findings – often involving laser photocoagulation for more serious cases combined with general treatment for DM itself such as blood sugar control via diet/lifestyle modifications & possible medications if needed.

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