Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute. Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.

Assignment: adaptive response nursing homework help| Nursing homework help

Scenario 1: Jennifer, a 2-yearold girl suffering from a fever and sore throat.

Pathophysiology: Jennifer’s symptoms, including fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes, are consistent with a common childhood illness known as pharyngitis, which is inflammation of the pharynx. A viral infection is the most common reason for pharyngitis among children. This includes common colds and flu. In some instances, however, it may be due to a bacterial infection such as Group A Streptococcus (GAS).

Associated alterations: The inflammatory response to the infection causes Jennifer’s body temperature to increase, resulting in a fever. The erythematous and swollen tonsils, as well as the tender lymph nodes, are signs of the immune system’s response to the infection. Jennifer’s increased heart rate and respiratory rate are also adaptive responses to the infection, as her body is working to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the affected areas and remove waste products.

Scenario 1: John, 55 years old male has had a long history of shortness of breath and smoking.

Pathophysiology: John’s symptoms, including shortness of breath, cough, and history of smoking, suggest a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a chronic lung disease that typically develops as a result of long-term exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke.

COPD can cause inflammation and narrowing in the airways. This causes difficulty breathing. An inflammatory response within the lungs can cause the airways thickening and production of excess mucus. This makes it more difficult for oxygen to flow into and out the lungs. John’s shortness of breath is a result of decreased oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, while his cough is a reflexive response to clear the airways of mucus. Lung damage can occur over time due to inflammation or narrowing of airways.

Scenario: Maria is a woman aged 40 with vomiting and abdominal pains

Pathophysiology: Maria’s symptoms, including abdominal pain and vomiting, are consistent with acute gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines typically caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

Associated alterations: The inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract can cause Maria’s abdominal pain, while the vomiting is a reflexive response to clear the stomach of irritants. The infection can also cause diarrhea, which is a result of the body’s attempt to flush out the harmful bacteria or viruses. Maria could experience hypoglycemia from the fluid loss caused by vomiting and diarrhea. If left untreated, this can result in electrolyte imbalances or other problems.


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