What are the mechanisms of action/physiologic and biologic effects of drugs such as loperamide (Imodium) used to treat diarrhea.

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  1. Mechanisms and effects of loperamide. Imodium is used to treat diarrhea. Loperamide works by slowing the intestinal movements, reducing the number of bowel movements, and decreasing the fluid loss. Loperamide binds to the opioid receptors within the intestinal wall. This results in decreased intestinal motility as well as increased absorption water and electrolytes. There are fewer diarrheal symptoms, less fluid loss and reduced abdominal cramps.
  2. GERD: Treatments, contraindicated medication. GERD refers to a condition in which stomach acid returns up into the esophagus. This can cause symptoms like heartburn, regurgitation and difficulty swallowing. Treatments include changes in lifestyle (e.g. weight loss and avoiding trigger foods), medication that lowers stomach acid production (e.g. proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor blockingers), as well as surgery for severe cases. Aspirin, NSAIDs and bisphosphonates are contraindicated for GERD sufferers. They can cause symptoms to worsen by irritating the esophagus.
  3. Use of topical treatment for acne with retinol: It is important to educate patients about the benefits and precautions for using tretinoin. Patients are advised to only use a tiny amount on the skin, and to avoid sensitive areas, such as the eyes or mouth. To protect their skin against sunburn, they should use sunscreen throughout the day. You should be aware that tretinoin can cause skin irritations such as peeling and may need to be treated with moisturizers.
  4. Penciclovir topical (Denavir), for herpes laboratoryialis. Mechanism of action, patient education. Penciclovir works by stopping the replication of HSV in infected cells. The virus DNA polymerase enzyme is blocked by penciclovir. The cream should be applied to the area for two hours every day during the waking hour. It must then be used four days later. Patients are advised to wash their hands often and to avoid contact with other people. Although penciclovir may reduce the symptoms of cold sores and the time they last, it will not treat the actual viral infection.
  5. First-line and mechanism of action: The H. pilori test positive for pepticultric disease is caused by bacteria that has damaged the stomach lining or duodenum. To eliminate the H. Pylori infection, and to reduce acid production, first-line treatment is to use a combination antibiotics, such as clarithromycin and amoxicillin, and proton pump inhibitors, like omeprazole and lansoprazole. It allows for the ulcer to heal, and it prevents from returning.
  6. There are two types of mechanisms that drugs can use to treat glaucoma: The positive and one-way mechanism of action. Betaxolol Ophthalmic Drops is a beta blocker medication. It works by decreasing the production of water in the eyes. This reduces intraocular pressure. Patients should be aware that beta-blockers may have systemic side effects, such as lowering heart rate or blood pressure. This could be dangerous for those with medical conditions.
  7. Patient education and calcium carbonate acid antacids may have untoward side effects. Calcium carbonate the antacids could cause constipation, diarrhea, or bloating. These medications should only be taken as prescribed. Patients are advised not to exceed the recommended dosage.

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