Betty Neuman’s Theory of Systems is a comprehensive theory that considers a person as a dynamic system that constantly interacts with various internal and external stressors. Neuman Systems Model’s key idea is that stressors are classified into intrapersonal (interpersonal), interpersonal and extrapersonal. Interpersonal stressors are stressors that arise from outside sources such as social or family relationships. Intrapersonal stressors can refer to stressors within the body, like physiological and psychological stressors. Extrapersonal stressors relate to external stressors such as political or economic stressors.
A nurse who is certified in advanced practice would provide care for Mr. Reynolds according to the Neuman Systems Model. His medical history would be gathered, along with any past or current ailments, surgeries and medication. A nurse would also collect information on his personal life, such as his work and family history. It would then be possible to identify intrapersonal, interpersonal and extrapersonal stressors. Planning would include identifying the appropriate intervention that could help Reynolds deal with his stressors. His general well-being, anxiety reduction, and overall health would all be the goals of his interventions.
Two specific examples of interventions that could be included in Mr. Reynolds’ care plan are as follows:
- Encourage social support. Mr. Reynolds may feel isolated from his spouse and is distant from his family. A nurse may suggest interventions to help Mr. Reynolds connect with others, participate in support groups or take part in group activities. This would allow him to make new friends and be less lonely.
- Psychological support: Mr. Reynolds is prone to depression or schizophrenia so the nurse may offer interventions that reduce his anxiety levels and improve his mental health. The nurse could offer him cognitive-behavioral therapies or relaxation techniques. A nurse might also be able to monitor and manage his medication.
References: Neuman, B. (1995). Neuman Systems Model (2nd Ed.). Appleton & Lange. Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2018). 3rd edition. Philosophies and theories of advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.