- According to Aristotle, happiness consists of living a life of virtue and contemplation, and it is achieved by engaging in activities that are in line with one’s nature and pursuing the highest good. Aristotle distinguishes between primary and second-hand goods. Primary goods are items that are wanted for their own purposes and not to be used for a purpose. While secondary goods can only be pursued in order to obtain other goods. Primary goods are friendship, wisdom and enjoyment. Secondary goods, on the other hand, include fame and wealth. Aristotle argues that primary goods are necessary for happiness because they are intrinsically valuable and can bring pleasure and fulfillment to a person’s life.
Aristotle’s assertion about primary goods is true because they offer a greater sense of fulfillment and meaning than secondary products. Although wealth and fame might bring you temporary pleasure, they are not sustainable sources of happiness. However, it is possible to live a happier and more meaningful life by building strong and lasting relationships with your loved ones as well as pursuing wisdom and personal development.
Plato suggests in The Myth Of Gyges that if one could do what they like without consequences they would act unvirtuously. This implication is inconsistent with Aristotle’s thoughts on happiness because Aristotle believes that virtuous actions are necessary for happiness. Unvirtuous actions are necessary for happiness. Therefore, I believe that Aristotle’s view on happiness is more convincing because it emphasizes the importance of living a virtuous life and pursuing things that have intrinsic value.
- John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty argues that freedom of expression is necessary for a flourishing society because it allows individuals to share their opinions and ideas freely, which in turn leads to the exchange of ideas and the progress of knowledge. Mill argues that suppressing someone’s opinion is wrong even if that opinion is false because it is only through the free exchange of ideas that the truth can be discovered. Plato’s Ship of Fools implies that freedom of expression can lead to chaos and that some people are not fit to participate in public discourse. The Ship of Fools is an allegory that depicts a society where everyone can voice their opinion regardless of how knowledgeable or skilled they are. It crashes, and everybody drowns.
Although I think we all should be free to express our opinions, it is also important to remember that others are responsible for the words we use. Although there are risks that people might abuse their freedom of speech, the benefits to a free society far outweigh these potential dangers. It is important to educate people and encourage them to consider the opinions of others.
- A person has to choose whether they want to save many people or cause harm one person. The best thing to do is save all because that would bring the most benefit for everyone. Deontologically, harming one individual would not be right even though it could save others. This would go against the principle that you should never use another person as a means of achieving your goal.