Explain the pathophysiology of COPD give clinical example of symptoms and pathophysiology associated with COPD.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) refers to a chronic, progressive respiratory condition that is often irreversible. It’s caused by persistent inflammation of the airways. COPD can be caused by smoking, occupational dust exposures, or air pollution. Pathophysiology is a combination of mucus production from the bronchioles and collagen deposition in their alveolar spaces. These alveoli are less functional for gas exchange. There’s also decreased elastic recoil inside the lung tissue as a result of loss of muscle tone in the bronchi and scarring around the small as well as the large airways.

This can lead to coughing, chronic sputum production and dyspnea.

Another symptom is tightening of the chest or discomfort when exercising or engaging in activity. There may be an increase in inspiratory work due to increased ventilation. The systemic effects of systemic hypoxia may include headaches, dizziness, and confusion.

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