The three principles that standards of ethical conduct in research are based on are beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice.

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Institutional Review Board (IRB), saw TOP as dangerous because it strayed away from normal care. The deviations posed harmful risks (National Public Radio 2013, 2013). The researcher should have used normal care for all subjects and not strayed from the routine. The second ethical principle is respect for human dignity which is the right to know what will take place or full disclosure (Polit & Beck, 2017).

TOPS was criticised for failing to disclose all the risks subjects were likely to face. The consent forms for this trial did not include information from previous studies on when transfusions should be performed. Studies showed that infants born prematurely who had received transfusions in the future had higher chances of brain injury, death and emergency care (National Public Radio 2013, 2013). The researchers should have been honest to the test subject’s parents regarding the previous studies and the risks of participation in the study. The third principle is justice which allows for fair treatment and the right to have privacy (Polit & Beck, 2017). In the TOPS trial it was suggested that the subject’s parents were not aware of what was being asked. The parents were giving up the right to have a doctor make their decisions about what they felt was appropriate.
The best interests of the infant.

This could compromise the rights of fair treatment.

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