Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

Care process in nursing

The devastating disease of cancer affects many millions every year. One in three Americans will be diagnosed with cancer within their lifetimes (American Cancer Society 2019, 2019). The American Cancer Society (ACS) defines cancer as the “abnormal growth of cells” which can spread and invade other areas of the body and disrupt normal functioning of healthy cells. It is crucial to detect cancer early to reduce mortality. Nurses must be trained in how to treat potential and existing cancers.

Many factors go into the diagnosis and staging for cancer. These include imaging studies and lab tests. These methods can identify suspected tumors and then classify them into one of four stages according to their size, or whether they have metastasized elsewhere in the body. These stages are numbered from 0-4, with more indicating disease progression (Ganet al. 2017, 2017).
Complications related to cancer treatment may include pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting from chemotherapy side effects , depression due to hormonal changes caused by radiation therapy , sexual dysfunction resulting from hormone therapies or surgery , hair loss due to chemotherapy or radiation therapy , skin reactions due to radiation therapy , fertility issues resulting from chemotherapy drugs impact on sperm production ;and anemia which can cause exhaustion even when engaging in daily activities (Brundage & Altman 2019; Gan et al., 2017). There are many strategies that nurses can use to reduce side effects, including non-pharmacological methods like mindfulness meditation and opioid analgesics. Many people experience anxiety during their treatment. Psychological support is also an option.

Incidence rates refer to new cases that occur within a specific population whereas mortality rates pertain to deaths caused by a specified illness over time (Fleshman & McGrath 2010). There are many factors that influence the incidence and death rates. Lifestyle choices, especially those related to smoking, can increase your risk of developing certain forms of malignancy Shukla Smith 2011. Regular screening is the best preventive measure.

The ACS offers education screening services throughout the United States. Additionally, this organization provides emotional support for individuals affected by along with extensive resources. You can also access literature pamphlets and videos through our central website https ww w acs org Index htm. Nurses are essential in helping to build trust among people. They help create safe learning environments.

Final, the nursing process guides collaboration among nurse colleagues. This ensures comprehensive patient-centered care every stage.

Refer to
American Cancer Society 2018 What Is Cancer https wwwcancerorg aboutcancer whatisAmericanNursing Association ANA Code Ethics Updates Professional Handle Uncertainties Practices Accessed November 12th 2018 http wwwnursingworldorg MainMenuCategories CodeofEthicsampSubMenu ProfessionalHandleUncertaintiesPracticesBrundage M K Altman R H eds Principles Survivorship Care Cambridge University Press New York NY 2019 p 152Fleshman JW McGrath S S eds Essentials Clinical Gastroenterology Oxford University Press Oxford UK 2010 pp 687Gan TJ Johnson DH Mannel RS Nanda Tsui BK Roman LD Yurasek AP Et Al Colorectal Cancer Nursing Perspective Springer Science Business Media LLC New York NY 2017 p 23Shukla HS Smith R D Carcinogenic Risk Reduction NCBI Bookshelf Bethesda MD US Department Health Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes H E A L T H 2011 Available at https wwwncbi nlm nih gov books NBK9916U S Department Health Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes H E A L T H 2016 8th Edition Breast Guidelines Guideline Implementation Northwest Medical Specialists Spokane WA

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