Anesthesia for patients with hypertension.

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A chronic condition that causes persistently elevated blood sugar levels, hypertension can lead to heart disease such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, renal disease and coronary artery disease. Anesthesia is often required for patients with hypertension. These patients require preoperative preparation that includes specific strategies in order to minimize adverse effects during surgery and maximize patient outcomes. The paper will discuss both the difficulties and strategies to reduce the risk of anesthesia for hypertensive patients who are undergoing surgery.

The prevalence of hypertension among adults aged ≥ 18 years old has been estimated at ~ 32%. Hypertension increases the risk of systemic complications related to anesthetic agents and techniques used during surgery—a phenomenon called Perioperative Hypertensive Syndrome (PHS). The pathophysiology of PHS includes neurohumoral effects caused by stimulation or deprivation of certain hormones which can lead to hypertensive crises during or immediately following anaesthesia induction (Jiang et al., 2020; Aigner et al., 2018; Jeon & Lee, 2019). It is also pertinent to note that inadequate treatment of hypertension before surgical procedure could make intra-operative management more challenging due to higher than normal pressures encountered when attempting resuscitation measures or ventilator support (Jeon & Lee, 2019; Shman et al., 2017).

Given the difficulties associated with anesthesia care of hypertensive people, it is important that healthcare professionals develop pre-surgical protocols. This includes determining what diagnostic tests should be performed prior to actual surgery. Clinical evaluation methods commonly utilized in clinic include physical examination measurement blood pressure through sphygmomanometry 24h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) imaging end organ damage electrocardiography echocardiography urine protein analysis cardiac stress test performed exercise treadmill depending on results findings previously mentioned testing regimes recommended prescriber aim obtaining best possible outcome without compromising safety patient overall health time realizable goal thinking ahead preparing ahead time makes difference goes long way setting up acclimatizing both parties likelihood successful event much greater discussed above certain conditions must met get accurate readings  (Kumar Ayyadevara Venkatakesavan 2020).” Furthermore pharmacologic agents meant regulate BP should adjusted prevent severe drops levels occur upon exposure anaesthetics utilise other drugs counteract however addition clinical assessment diagnostic tools choice medications widely varies provider responsible deciding what fits particular case better moving forward proper preparation key element each instance prepare individualised plan action tailored fit person’s current needs so guaranteed achieve optimal outcome possible few surprises along way shoulder burden worrying about medications administered wrong expectations set standards followed outlined clearly doctors nurses know exactly doing able carry out intended task prescribed manner entirety reduce chances something unexpected happen lack communication within team told play big role start finish just like game chess think every move made turn part larger strategy implemented correctly planned result victory desired end piece advice keep close eye post operative status anyone having issues persistent changes vital signs oxygen saturation pain score etc alert physician immediately tackle issue head before becomes too late stop progression worsen reactions biggest mistake let negative snowball effect follow suit cause unwanted consequences potentially lives lost doesn’t have down many roads look towards reaching same destination journey sure but if broken down steps taken thoughtfully handled one step time anything become achievable reality only takes little extra effort right mindset pull wool over everyone’s eyes saying couldn’t completed put haste ruin waste fails feels plagues throughout entire process hopefully conquered next tries obtain steady rhythm pace sharing common goal.

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