Briefly explain pathophysiology and provide at least 4 risk factors.

Sickle cell disease is an inheritable condition that results in a lack of red blood cells capable of transporting oxygen throughout the body. The blood channels allow circular red blood cell movement to be normal. However, sickle cells are usually crescent or sickle-shaped. These may become lodged in tiny blood vessels, which can reduce blood flow and oxygen supply to other parts of the body. Although the disorder can’t be treated, it can be controlled with pain relief and preventive measures.
The hemoglobin protein must have a very high soluble status in order to allow it to be stored in red blood cells at an extremely high concentration. Sickle hemoglobin can be deoxygenated by substituting glutamic acid for another hemoglobin molecule, which causes it to aggregate into large polymers. The central process that causes sickle cell disease is called polymerization deoxygenated hemoglobin (Tisdale and al. 2020). The red blood cell shape is altered and the subsequent malformation occurs. This is due to very stiff cells. Cell membranes can become permanently damaged even if adequate oxygen levels are present. They may retain an occlusion or biconcave form. Normal tissue perfusion is impeded by the abnormal sickling red blood cell. The disease is caused by a mutation in the B-globin Chain of the hemoglobin molecule.
Risk Factors
Sickle cells are common among some ethnic groups, such as Africans, Africans, Hispanic Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Hispanic Americans of South and Central America. Sickle cell anemia symptoms can appear up to four months before birth. Early diagnosis is crucial. This condition can be diagnosed by either analyzing amniotic fluid, or extracting placental tissues. It is highly recommended to seek genetic counseling.
Indications and symptoms
Different people may experience different symptoms and manifestations of this condition. Patients with sickle cell disease can experience pain crises. The condition occurs when sickled red cells stick to blood vessels walls, blocking blood flow. Most pain is felt in the chest, arms and legs (Tisdale, et al. 2020). Anemia can also cause individuals to appear pale. Red blood cell count is reduced when sickled cells are destroyed. It causes anemia that is characterised by pallor and vertigo as well as weariness and shortness in breath.

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