The end of modernism saw the collapse of Rome, Russia’s Empire, and the establishment of the Russian Tsardom. The Roman Empire was the dominant power in modernism. The dispute between Caesars and Senate resulted in civil war, which ultimately saw the Roman Empire fall (ER Services). An indicator that a state is in trouble is civil conflict. Ineffective leadership in politics makes governments more vulnerable to internal and external threats. This can erode national pride.
Nationalism builds patriotism, loyalty and strength of leadership. But leaders who are autocratic encourage impunity and civil conflict. The effects of despotism on the country and the demise of nationalism in England were obvious after the fighting between the Monarchy (the Parliament) and the Monarchy. Nine years civil war ensued between King Charles I and Parliament, with eleven years without parliament. King Charles I was also tried and convicted. (ER Services). Anti-Catholic feelings were also responsible for the English Civil War. In the latter part of modernity, the Catholicism in Europe and the rise to power of the pope dominated. Most countries were Catholic, while those that refused to unite with Rome would be considered rebels. After the end of civil war, a constitution monarchy was established. The Sovereign heads the state, while the parliament is headed by the prime minster.
Another lesson learned during the modernist period is the development of Russia’s Tsardom and its role as an Eastern European political power. Peters, the Russian emperor, influenced Russia’s progress by adopting a progressive foreign program. This strategy emphasized the importance of expanding seaports. Russia could thus expand its reach and get access to more ports in Lithuania.
Late modernism was the peak of patriarchy. Males controlled the whole sphere of power. Yes, I believe that women who were not involved in the government, military, and public spheres of influence were less valuable than those who were. Affirmative action was not a concept in the Roman Empire. This is because society didn’t emphasize women’s rights. Slavery was not an act of race during that time, but it was based more on socioeconomical and political factors, like having debt or being a resident in a state which had made an agreement. Late modernist times also saw the expansion of the notion of separation of power, in which the heads of state and government share the authority with the other divisions. This idea was prevalent during the Hittite Empire and England when Charles I chose to split power with Parliament (ER Services).