Ethnic conflicts refer to situations where at least one party expresses its interests in ethnic terms. Conflict context and potential solutions can also be viewed in ethnic terms. The issue is not usually about ethnic differences. The disagreement is usually about political, socio-cultural or territorial matters. According to (Cordell & Wolff, 2009) conflict describes a situation in which two or more actors seek objectives that are contradictory, but totally fair from their individual perspectives. This is how you can define an ethnic conflict.
There are several ethnic groups in Africa, each with its own distinct culture, traditions, and political institutions (Alcorta, Swedlund & Smits, 2020). Africa has experienced many civil wars due to its varied history. Given Africa’s ethnic divides, this is not surprising. Conflict between ethnicities is a constant feature of all regions of the world for hundreds of years.
To better understand ethnic conflict, we need to ask these questions: What causes wars among ethnic groups and what are their consequences? What areas are more susceptible to war than others? And where can you find relative peace in the rest of the world. Is ethnic violence still a problem in modern society? Several theories about the origins of ethnic conflict have been suggested and one of the most prominent ones is the theory of rational choice (Bošković & Ignjatovic´, 2012)
According to this theory, violence is rooted in fear. When threatened they may act on the threat and attack their community. This community is not going to take this lightly. They will respond in a way that suits their needs. It is important to see violence as an act for defense and not as a way of provoking full-blown conflict. Ethnic conflict in turn can cause instability and threaten peace in one region. Focus of the paper is the Tigray Conflict, currently in Ethiopia. Major media outlets around the globe have reported extensively on it (Nexus 2020).